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Let's say we have a dataset which tells us various characteristics for neighbourhoods for different cities, let's say now we want to understand things related to cities, a way to do this is to use groupby. By using groupby we can imagine, that we are splitting our dataframe in multiple smaller dataframes, each related to a specific thing. For example taking our city and neighbourhoods dataframe, a groupby on the column 'city', would produce different dataframes, each one containing only rows related to a specific city.

Printing a groupby dataframe

g = df.groupby('city')

for city, city_df in g:

An alternative way could be:


With the last command meaning "print only the sub dataframe related to the city Napoli".

A groupby basically implements a sequence of the following operations:

  • split, splits the original DataFrame in sub DataFrames
  • apply, applies an operation, we can ask for max(), min(), mean() and whatever other function
  • combine, again in a new Series or DataFrame

We can also apply these statistics for each row, for example let's say that we have a dataset and many columns represent years, while the values are some energy spent through these years, we can compute the average or max, min by using the axis = 1 parameter, e.g.:

years = ['2006', '2007', '2008', '2009', '2010', '2011', '2012', '2013', '2014', '2015']
ds['avg_energy'] = Top15[years].mean(axis = 1)

We can also plot data for each different city for example:


We can also use multiple columns in the groupby for example, let's say that we want to print the mean age for each combination of occupation and gender, we can do: